Teorijski glazbeni predmeti prisutni su na svim razinama glazbenoga školskog sustava, a svrha im je učenje i svladavanje glazbenoga jezika te unaprjeđivanje razumijevanja glazbe. Prema tome, cilj ovih pomoćnih disciplina je, za razliku od nastave instrumenta i pjevanja, izvan njih samih. Odabir odgovarajućih nastavnih metoda, postupaka i strategija sukladnih funkciji i prirodi teorijskih glazbenih predmeta prvenstveno ovisi o kompetencijama nastavnika i spremnosti za usavršavanje u odgojno-obrazovnom procesu. Upravo su kompetencije nastavnika teorijskih disciplina izrazito specifične s obzirom na to da su za ovladavanje glazbenim fenomenima i pojmovima potrebne godine vježbanja, odnosno, sustavnoga rada na stjecanju vještina. Promatranjem tih aspekata, u radu su se istražile metode učenja i načini organiziranja i izvođenja nastave teorijskih glazbenih predmeta te pedagoške i stručne kompetencije nastavnika teorijskih glazbenih predmeta u osnovnim i srednjim glazbenim školama u Republici Hrvatskoj. Istraživanje se odvijalo tijekom 2016./2017., 2017./2018. i drugoga polugodišta 2018./2019. školske godine, te je obuhvatilo 143 nastavnika teorijskih glazbenih predmeta iz 24 osnovne i srednje glazbene škole iz sveukupno 17 županija Republike Hrvatske. Uzorak od 143 nastavnika teorijskih glazbenih predmeta čini oko 40 % ukupne populacije nastavnika koji podučavaju teorijske glazbene predmete. Istraživanje je provedeno u dva dijela, odnosno, provedeno je kvantitativno i kvalitativno istraživanje. U prvome dijelu istraživanja korišten je postupak anonimnoga anketiranja, a od instrumenata anketni upitnici. Konstruiranim upitnicima ispitani su nastavnici, odnosno, njihova samoprocjena pedagoških i stručnih kompetencija te vlastitih profesionalnih vještina. U drugome dijelu istraživanja kao postupak za prikupljanje podataka korišteno je intervjuiranje te kao instrument, protokol intervjua. Nastavnici su pobliže ispitivani o stručnim kompetencijama, to jest zamoljeni su za procjenu vlastitih kompetencija vezanih uz nastavu Solfeggia, Harmonije i Kontrapunkta. Proveden je strukturirani individualni intervju koji je sadržavao pripremljena pitanja zatvorenoga i otvorenog tipa. Provođenjem kvantitativnoga i kvalitativnog istraživanja dobiveni su rezultati koji ukazuju na to da nastavnici vlastite pedagoške kompetencije ocjenjuju vrlo visoko, kao i to da procjenjuju kako posjeduju dovoljno stručnih kompetencija. Nastavnici, unatoč tome, ipak osjećaju potrebu za osobnim i profesionalnim razvojem, odnosno napredovanjem u nastavi. Vidljivo je također da važnost održavanja kvalitetnoga odnosa i pružanja potpore učenicima s godinama radnoga iskustva raste, a to je izraz jasno razvijenih osobnih kompetencija. Uvidom u stavove o nastavnom planu i programu propisanim uredbama Ministarstva znanosti, obrazovanja i športa i metodama rada u nastavi uočeno je da su nastavnici poprilično nezadovoljni propisanim sadržajem, osobito vezanim uz Harmoniju i Kontrapunkt (Polifoniju). Zastarjeli koncepti učenja navedenih predmeta zahtijevaju osuvremenjivanje putem sadržaja koji će se logično nadovezivati i transferirati na glazbene aktivnosti te omogućiti stjecanje vještina potrebnih za učenje, zapamćivanje i interpretaciju glazbe. Izmjene su ostvarive, no trebaju se ticati kako srednjoškolskoga stupnja, tako i ustanova visokoga obrazovanja. Prilagodba nastavnoga plana i programa današnjem kontekstu i revizija kolegija Metodike nastave teorijskih glazbenih predmeta i Pedagoške prakse teorijskih glazbenih predmeta prvi je korak prema promjenama temeljenih na znanstvenim promišljanjima. Spoznaje proizašle istraživanjem pedagoških i stručnih kompetencija nastavnika teorijskih glazbenih predmeta doprinos su osuvremenjivanju nastavnih postupaka ključnih teorijskih glazbenih predmeta poput Solfeggia, Harmonije i Kontrapunkta zasnovanih (postupaka) na znanstveno utemeljenim funkcijama teorijskih glazbenih predmeta. Dobiveni rezultati mogu biti poticaj užoj povezanosti nastave teorijskih glazbenih predmeta s nastavom instrumenta i pjevanja ali i snažnijoj međusobnoj korelaciji teorijskih glazbenih predmeta. Uvid u izvođenje nastave i procjenu vlastitih kompetencija nastavnika stečenih tijekom i nakon studija pridonosi široj perspektivi organizacije svih razina glazbenoga obrazovanja, te mogućih poboljšanja koja mogu znatno utjecati na razvoj kvalitete školskoga sustava. Ono se može očitovati prvenstveno na preinaku Nastavnih planova i programa u osnovnim i srednjim glazbenim školama te na oblikovanje studijskih programa na visokom stupnju glazbenoga obrazovanja. S obzirom da se kompetencije nastavnika teorijskih glazbenih predmeta dosad nisu proučavale s teorijskoga i empirijskoga stanovišta, spoznaje nastale ovim istraživanjem pridonijet će daljnjem razvitku glazbene pedagogije usmjerene učenju teorijskih glazbenih predmeta u skladu sa znanstvenim spoznajama.
|Sažetak (engleski)|| |
Theoretical music subjects are present at all levels of the music school system. Their purpose is to teach and to master the language of music and to improve the understanding of music. Unlike instrumental and singing lessons, the goal of these auxiliary disciplines is beyond themselves. The selection of appropriate teaching methods, procedures and strategies following the functions and nature of theoretical music subjects primarily depends on the competencies of teachers and their willingness to improve in the educational process. The competencies of teachers of theoretical disciplines are specific, given that the authorization of musical phenomena and concepts require years of practice, i.e. systematic work on the acquisition of skills. This paper deals with methods of learning and ways of organizing and conducting teaching of theoretical music subjects, and also gives an insight into pedagogical and professional competencies of teachers of theoretical music subjects in primary and secondary music schools in Croatia. The research took place during school year of 2016/17, 2017/18 and the second half of school year of 2018/19. In the first part of the research, anonymous survey questionnaires were used as instruments. Teachers were examined with the constructed questionnaires, i.e. their selfassessment of pedagogical and professional competencies and their own professional skills. In the second part of the research, interviewing was used as a data collection procedure, and the interview protocol as an instrument. Teachers were questioned about professional competencies, that is, they were asked to assess their own competencies related to the teaching of Ear training (Solfeggio), Harmony and Counterpoint. A structured individual interviews contained prepared closed-ended and open-ended questions. 143 teachers of theoretical music subjects from 24 primary and secondary music schools from a total of 17 counties in Croatia participated in the research. According to information from the Croatian Society of Music and Dance Educators (HDGPP), about 350 teachers of theoretical music subjects are employed in primary and secondary music schools in Croatia. There are 93 primary and 28 secondary schools in Croatia. When it is taken into account that Ear training is the only theoretical music subject taught in primary schools, and that Ear training, Harmony, Counterpoint and other theoretical music subjects are taught in secondary schools, it is noticeable that there is a relatively small total population of teachers of theoretical music subjects. The sample of 143 teachers of theoretical music subjects (N=143) as many as participated in the research, makes up about 40% of the total population of teachers who teach theoretical music subjects in music schools in Croatia. For this reason, it can be determined that the sample of respondents is representative. The research problem concerns study programs and output competencies, as well as outdated concepts of learning theoretical music subjects. Theorists and music pedagogues study almost the same subjects and pedagogical-psychological subjects. The problem is that theorists have the right to teach all theoretical music subjects in primary and secondary music school, and music pedagogues are limited to teaching only Ear training and Music Theory in primary music school. Both, as students, share a small schedule of pedagogical subjects and practice, which is undoubtedly modest compared to the schedule of professional subjects. For these reasons, it is justified to ask the following questions: Do teachers of theoretical music subjects have sufficient pedagogical competencies? How is the teaching of Ear training, Harmony and Counterpoint organized? Are there significant differences in competencies among teachers concerning completed education and studies? Following the research problem, the paper sets the following goal: to determine the pedagogical and professional competencies of teachers of theoretical music subjects in primary and secondary music school and to examine how the theoretical music subjects: Ear training, Harmony and Counterpoint are organized and conducted. The starting hypothesis is: teachers of theoretical music subjects believe that they have enough professional but insufficient pedagogical competencies to teach theoretical music subjects. Further hypotheses emerged from the initial hypothesis: there is no statistically significant difference between teachers in the assessment of their own pedagogical competencies regarding education and studies (H1); there is no statistically significant difference between teachers in the assessment of the student-teacher relationship regarding education and studies (H2); there is a significant statistical difference in the assessment of the lack of skills in work between teachers with a degree in Music Pedagogy and Music Culture compared to teachers with a degree in Music Theory (H3); there is a significant statistical difference in the expression of positive attitudes towards the completed study between teachers with a degree in Music Pedagogy and Music Culture compared to teachers with a degree in Music Theory (H4); there are significant statistical differences in the application of musical dictation and singing in teaching of Ear training (H5/1); there are significant statistical differences in the use of thoroughbass and the analysis of examples from music literature in the teaching of Harmony (H5/2); there are significant statistical differences in use of species counterpoint and the analysis of examples from music literature in the teaching of Counterpoint (H5/3). In the first sequence, i.e. the quantitative phase of the research, data were collected through survey questionnaires. In the process of interviewing 101 teachers of theoretical music subjects (N=101), four survey questionnaires designed to test the set research hypotheses were used. The following questionnaires were used: Questionnaire 1 – for teachers of all theoretical music subjects; Questionnaire 2 – for Ear training teachers; Questionnaire 3 – for Harmony teachers and Questionnaire 4 – for Counterpoint teachers. In the second sequence, i.e. the qualitative phase of the research, data were collected through individual interviews. In interviewing 42 teachers of Ear training, Harmony and Counterpoint (N=42), three interviews designed to test the set research hypotheses were used. The following interviews were used: Interview 1 – for Ear training teachers; Interview 2 – for Harmony teachers and Interview 3 – for Counterpoint teachers. Quantitative research examined pedagogical competencies for teaching theoretical music subjects. Teachers rated their own competencies very highly and expressed a desire for further professional and personal development. Also, it was noticed that the concern about the quality of relationships and providing support to students is growing with years of work experience. That is an indicator of highly expressed personal competencies. The research showed as well that teachers, regardless of the years of work experience, education and studies, expressed a poor satisfaction regarding the pedagogical and methodological practice in their studies. By gaining insight into the methods of teaching Ear training, Harmony and Counterpoint, the results showed almost unexpected data. For example, Ear training teachers are equally dedicated to the implementation of musical dictation and singing, thus shattering the assumption that singing is the predominant process of practising intonation. On the other hand, Harmony teachers mostly use encryption of chords, which is not so surprising since the thoroughbass method, according to the plan and programme (curriculum), is the backbone of learning harmony. But the next most prominent method teachers use and which they also consider the best method is analyzing examples from the music literature. The most used method in teaching Counterpoint is practicing species counterpoint, which is dominant in the plan and programme. Nevertheless, most teachers singled out analyzing examples from the music literature as a good and desirable method of learning counterpoint. The purpose of the qualitative research was to gain an insight into the professional competencies of teachers of Ear training, Harmony and Counterpoint. The aim of the cross-section of the areas of competencies acquired during and after the studies was primarily to compare the development of competencies. For example, Ear training teachers showed that they felt most competent to work on intonation and music theory as students, and they also showed that they express those areas now, as teachers. In contrast, the area of least competence during studies and that they would currently like to develop more is creative work of students. Written exercises and piano harmony are the greatest competencies during studies and at this time for Harmony teachers. The work related to the analysis of harmony and harmonic dictation was the least acquired during their studies, and they would like to progress further in them. Most of the teachers of Counterpoint believe that during their studies they were the most competent in the work on the analysis of compositions, but quarter of them still stated that this is the area of least competence. Currently, they feel most competent in written exercises in polyphony and strive to develop instrumental (baroque) counterpoint. Also, it is noted that almost all respondents, after their studies, acquired competencies throughout working in school and attending conferences in Croatia, but many of them acquire skills independently, on their own initiative. Overall, teachers assess that they possess sufficient professional competencies, but also feel the need for improvement and advancement in teaching. Insight into the methods of work, especially in the teaching of Harmony and Counterpoint, shows that teachers strive for activities that contribute most to the understanding of music and the improvement of harmonic and polyphonic thinking. However, they are forced to use outdated learning concepts that are still relevant in the plans and programmes of music courses (curricula) prescribed by the Ministry of Science, Education and Sports. Theoretical music subjects require updating through content that will transfer to musical activities and enable the acquisition of skills needed to learn, memorize and interpret music. The changes are feasible but should concern both the secondary level and higher education institutions. The first step towards changes based on scientific considerations is the adaptation of plans and programmes of music courses to today's context and also the revision of Methodology of Teaching Theoretical Music Subjects and Pedagogical Practice of Theoretical Music Subjects courses in higher education. The pedagogical and professional competencies that the teachers assessed within this research are at a high level, which represents a basis for successful music education. Teachers noticeably regularly attend professional courses and express the need for professional and personal development, as well as the need for teaching improvement. It is also evident that they are aware of the shortcomings of the music school system and that it is time for change at almost all levels of education. In accordance with the aforementioned, the following suggestions are proposed: 1) A reform of the entire primary music education would allow educating musical amateurs and professionals. 2) Designing an amateur musical education curriculum would require a development of certain conditions related to the musical abilities of students, their interests, prior knowledge, length of schooling and age. The curriculum for teaching instrument/singing should be formed for each student separately, as it is a prerequisite for accomplishing individualization. 3) Theoretical music subjects should be compulsory whilst educating musical amateurs. The most adequate model for learning theoretical music subjects would be an interdisciplinary approach which would encompass subjects such as Ear training, Harmony, Counterpoint and Musical Forms. 4) Group participation of amateur musicians in an orchestra, chamber ensemble or choir could be conducted from the very beginning of education. 5) The education of music professionals would need modifications at the primary and secondary levels. A suitable model for teaching an instrument can be a practicalempirical method based on listening to music, improvisation and combining practical and theoretical knowledge. Achieving this level implies a greater connection between the teaching of an instrument and the teaching of Ear training. 6) The plan and the programme for educating professionals in a primary music school should comprise of specific goals, tasks and methodical explanations. 7) The content of the Ear training subject in the education of professionals in a primary music school should be designed in a way that nurtures listening to music. If listening is set as the primary activity in both Ear training teaching and instrument teaching, the likelihood of interconnection would increase significantly. 8) Whilst educating professional musicians, group music-making should be held from the first grade in primary music schools. That way the students will acquire the habit of playing/singing with others and listening to others from the very beginning of music education. 9) By establishing art gymnasiums, the secondary level music education system would allow students music and non-music subject attendance within the same institution. 10) Teaching plan and program changes with specifically stated goals and tasks and detailed methodological explanations for teachers are necessary within the secondary music school. The teaching contents should be connected to the teaching contents at a higher level of music education. 11) Instrument/singing lessons and Ear training lessons at the secondary school level should be interconnected as much as possible by nurturing listening skills. The use of thoroughbass and species counterpoint in the teaching of Harmony and Counterpoint should be replaced with analytical music listening and studying composers’ musical techniques. A combination of both of these subjects with Musical Forms would provide greater opportunities for correlation with instrument/singing teaching. 12) The content of theoretical music subjects, at a higher level of music education, should be designed in logically accordance with previous theoretical music subjects’ content, especially in regards to Harmony and Counterpoint. 13) Music Theory and Music Pedagogy studies should double the schedule of pedagogicalpsychological subjects in order to be equal to the schedule of professional subjects. ECTS credits need to be increased fivefold because they are not in line with the standards of the Bologna system that entails a minimum standard of 60 ECTS credits. 14) The teaching plan of certain pedagogical-psychological subjects in Music Theory and Music Pedagogy studies requires revision in order to provide greater content interconnection between theory and practice. 15) Students of Music Theory and Music Pedagogy studies should practice in school right after acquiring certain theoretical knowledge. It would affect not only the development of pedagogical and professional competencies but would also provide insight into the teaching process and the role of teachers. The research findings on the pedagogical and professional competencies of teachers of theoretical music subjects are a contribution to modernizing the teaching procedures of the key theoretical music subjects, such as Solfeggio, Harmony and Counterpoint procedures, which are scientifically based on the functions of theoretical music subjects. The obtained results can encourage a closer connection between theoretical music subject classes and singing or instrument lessons, and they can also contribute to a stronger mutual correlation between theoretical music subjects. Insight into the classes and the assessment of teachers' competencies acquired during and after studies contributes to a broader perspective of all the levels of music education organization and to possible improvements that can significantly affect the development of the quality of the school system. It can be expressed primarily in the modification of the curricula in primary and secondary music schools and in the design of study programs at a higher level of music education. Since the competencies of teachers of theoretical music subjects have not been studied so far from a theoretical and empirical point of view, the findings of this research will contribute to a further development of music pedagogy aimed at learning theoretical music subjects in accordance with scientific knowledge. This research provided an insight into the work of teachers and their attitudes, but in the future research it would be useful to examine teachers about their own, self-initiated decisions related to their progression after music education. This new variable, non-formal and informal education, would represent a personal dimension as opposed to purely formal education as one of the factors in the development of competencies. It would enable assessing and comparing differences between teachers in terms of motivation and commitment to teaching and working with students. The implementation of longitudinal research would also shed the light on the understanding of development and progress of competencies over a longer period of time, which would be of great importance for future generations of teachers.